Get Informed. Make Informed Decisions.
- There are an estimated 80,000 abortions each year in Australia.1 Ninety-one per cent of abortions are performed in the first 14 weeks.2
- The reason we use the term “estimated 80,000 children are aborted” is because no precise figures are kept on abortion in Australia. The three most populous States, NSW, Victoria and Queensland do not keep any statistics on abortion, and only one State, South Australia, publishes figures on abortion. National figures are estimated from South Australian, Western Australian and Northern Territory figures and from Medicare rebates paid to private patients.
- About a third of all Australian women will have an abortion. This represents about one-in-four pregnancies.3
- Various studies show about 96% of all abortions are performed for psychosocial reasons, including half of late-term abortions (after 20 weeks gestation).4
- Less than 3% of abortions are performed because the child has a disability.
- Less than 1% of abortions are performed on women who are the victims of rape. One extensive study of women who conceived as a result of sexual assault showed nearly all the women regretted their decision to abort. Those who continued their pregnancies were glad they did.5
- Late-term abortions are generally available in all States and Territories.
- 60% of women were using at least one form of contraception at the time of their pregnancy.6
- Women of any age, including teenage girls, do not require parental permission to have an abortion.7
- The majority of women and girls who have abortions do so because of a lack of support from partners, parents and friends. 70% of women say they felt they had no alternative to abortion.8
- Abortion not only ends the life of a child (the foetal heartbeat is detected at 22 days from conception), but often leaves a woman and others deeply wounded, affecting existing and future relationships.9
- One comprehensive study of 400 international studies into the psychological risks associated with abortion concluded that up to 20% of women who had an abortion suffered from serious, prolonged, negative consequences.10
- About 60% (polls range from 60-70%) of Australians are generally in favour of abortion, however this figure decreases as reasons for abortion are qualified. Most Australians believe there are too many abortions, and that women should receive independent counselling.11
- 32% of women who have abortions are married or in a de-facto relationship.
What are the ages of women having abortions?
|20 – 24||1,182||26.6|
|25 – 29||1,104||24.9|
|30 – 34||886||20.0|
|35 – 39||582||13.1|
|40 – 44||236||5.3|
South Australian abortion figures only.12
Answers To Common Questions
1. No One Knows When Life Begins
Medical textbooks and the doctors who wrote and study them agree that a unique human being is formed at the moment of conception when a sperm cell and ovum unite. Consider the following: 1
- Dr Bradley M. Patten’s textbook, Human Embryology states: “It is the penetration of the ovum by a spermatozoan and the resultant mingling of the nuclear material each brings to the union that constitutes the culmination of the process of fertilization and marks the initiation of the life of a new individual.”
- Doctors E.L Potter and J. M Craig write in Pathology of the Fetus and the Infant, “Every time a sperm cell and ovum unite a new being is created which is alive and will continue to live unless its death is brought about by some specific condition.”
- Dr Alfred M. Bongioanni, Professor of Pediatrics and Obstetrics at the University of Pennsylvania, stated: “I have learned from my earliest medical education that human life begins at the moment of conception … I submit that human life is present throughout this entire sequence from conception to adulthood and that any interruption at any point throughout this time constitutes a termination of human life.”
- Dr Jerome LeJeunne, Professor of Genetics at the University of Descartes in Paris – who discovered the chromosome pattern of Down Syndrome – testified to a judiciary sub-committee: “After fertilization has taken place, a new human being has come into being.”
2. The unborn is an embryo or a fetus, not a baby. Abortion is terminating a pregnancy, not killing a child.
Like “toddler” and “adolescent”, the terms “embryo” and “fetus” refer to humans at particular stages of development. The word “embryo” is used of any living creature at an early stage of development. “Fetus” is a Latin word meaning “offspring”, “young one” or “little child”. The human embryo is referred to as a fetus at eight weeks.
“It is scientifically inaccurate to say an embryo or fetus is not a human being simply because he is at an earlier stage of development than a born infant. That is like saying a toddler is not a human being – or less of a human being – because he is not yet an adult. Stage of development has nothing to do with human worth. One of my daughters is two years older than the other. Does this mean she is two years better?” 2
From the moment of conception, the unborn is not simple, but very complex. A single thread of DNA from a human cell contains information equivalent to a library of one thousand volumes, or 600,000 printed pages with 500 words on a page.
The unborn child has a beating heart at 22 days after conception, before a woman is even aware she is pregnant. By 30 days, the baby has a brain, budding arms and legs and multiplied in size 10,000 times.
At three months, all the baby’s organs are formed. For the remaining six months, nothing new develops, the baby simply grows and matures.
Surgeon Robert P. N. Shearin says: “As early as eight to 10 weeks after conception, and definitely by thirteen-and-a-half weeks, the unborn experience organic pain … First, the unborn child’s mouth, at eight weeks, then her hands at 10 weeks, then her face, arms and legs at 11 weeks become sensitive to touch. By thirteen and a half weeks, she responds to pain at all levels of her nervous system in an integrated response which cannot be termed a mere reflex.” 3
3. The unborn isn’t a person with a meaningful and productive life.
Personhood is properly defined by membership in the human species, not by stages of development within that species.
“A living being designation to a species is determined by the sum total of its biological characteristics – actual and potential – which are genetically determined. If we say that (the fetus) is not human eg a member of Homo sapiens, we must say it is a member of another species, but this cannot be.” 4
The dictionary defines a “person” as a “human being”, “human individual” or “member of the human race”.
4. Life begins at birth. That’s why we celebrate birthdays, not conception days, and we don’t have funerals following miscarriages.
5. Even if the unborn are human beings, they have fewer rights than the woman. No one should be forced to donate their body as a life-support system for someone else.
An unborn child has equal rights to other human beings, regardless of age and size. A child, people with disabilities, the elderly, all have the same inalienable rights by virtue of their humanity.
As a society, we generally provide extra protection and safeguards for those among us who are most vulnerable; the aged, those with disabilities, children.
In recent years, our society has worked hard to ensure minorities get equal rights. Everyone seems to be getting more rights, or at least their rights acknowledged and upheld, except the unborn.
An unborn child’s rights are enshrined in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the 1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the more recent 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Declaration of the Rights of the Child states: “Whereas the child, by reasons of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special treatment and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth.” 5
Rita Joseph, who wrote Human Rights and the Unborn Child (Brill 2009), and who has studied the context and language of international charters and declarations, concludes:
“Context shines a powerful light on what the authors of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognised as definitive and universal when they framed that crucial first modern statement of human rights. This is particularly important when we come to examine later human rights documents that derive from, and codify the rights expounded in the UDHR, especially as they relate to the child before birth.”
UNICEF agrees with Joseph’s interpretation, stating that the Convention on the Rights of the Child “brings together the human rights articulated in other international instruments. The Convention articulates the rights more completely and provides a set of guiding principles that fundamentally shapes the way in which we view children.” 6
UNICEF says of the convention: “Built on varied legal systems and cultural traditions, the Convention is a universally agreed set of non-negotiable standards and obligations. These basic standards—also called human rights—set minimum entitlements and freedoms that should be respected by governments. They are founded on respect for the dignity and worth of each individual, regardless of race, colour, gender, language, religion, opinions, origins, wealth, birth status or ability and therefore apply to every human being everywhere. With these rights comes the obligation on both governments and individuals not to infringe on the parallel rights of others. These standards are both interdependent and indivisible; we cannot ensure some rights without—or at the expense of—other rights.” 7
Article six of the convention says: “Children have the right to live. Governments should ensure that children survive and develop healthily.”
As for arguments that no woman should be forced to act as a life-support system for a baby: We are not free to misuse our bodies when it injures another. In other words, personal rights and freedoms are limited or restricted when our behaviour affects others. You can get drunk in the privacy of your own home, but you cannot drive in such a state or abuse and neglect children as a result of being intoxicated. You cannot use your body ie your hands, arms or fists to injure another person.
6. Abortion rights are fundamental to advancing the rights of women.
Abortion has become the primary means of eliminating unwanted females across the globe. Unborn girls are routinely aborted in many Asian countries including Korea, China and India.
In Australia, abortion is increasingly used as a means of sex selection. In 2010, an Australian couple made national news when they chose to abort twin boys conceived through IVF “because they wanted a girl”. 8
Despite their legal right to abortion and supposed accompanying freedom and empowerment, many women say they are forced into choosing abortion, either by circumstances, or pressure from partners and family.
Seventy per cent of women say they felt they had no alternative to abortion. Many of these same women say abortion is morally wrong. One of the weakest arguments for the legitimacy of abortion is that it’s legal in some juridictions of Australia. What is legal is not always right or best. Smoking, prostitution and pornography are all legal, but cause untold damage to the minds, hearts and bodies of Australians. Prostitution and pornography are demeaning to women.
7. It’s unfair to bring children into a world where they are not wanted.
A famous quote from Mother Teresa says: “How can you say there are too many children in the world? That is like saying there are too many flowers.”
There is a big difference between an unintended pregnancy and an unwanted child. Every child is wanted by someone.
There were 80,000 abortions last year in Australia, and a record low number of local adoptions. Only 46 Australian children who were not previously known to the adoptive parents were adopted in 2013-14. 9
There are fewer children available for adoption, not fewer parents who want a child, particularly considering record rates of infertility in Australia.
Adoption needs to be promoted and made easier for Australians.
8. Abortion prevents abuse and neglect.
Rates of childhood abuse and neglect have risen dramatically in the past decade, despite increasing abortion rates.
There were a record 43,009 children in out-of-home-care in 2013-2014, and reports of abuse have increased from 103,302 instances in 1998-99 to 272,980 reports in 2012-2013.10
9. Abortion needs to be legalised to protect women from having backyard abortions.
Before abortion was made legal, most were done by physicians in their surgeries, and not by backyard butchers using knitting needles and coat hangers.
The single biggest advance in reducing maternal deaths from abortion has not been legalisation but improvements in medical advances such as improved surgical procedures and antibiotics, blood transfusions, improved emergency facilities and anaesthetics. 10
The Australian Bureau of Statistics data on maternal deaths from abortion fell significantly from a rate of about 100 deaths every year in the 1930s, to one death in 1969, the year before the first legal abortion clinic opened in Australia. The decrease in maternal deaths from abortion coincided with the introduction of antibiotics in the 1940s. 11
10. Abortion is necessary to save the life of the mother.
11. Abortion is understandable when tests reveal an unborn child has a serious illness or life-threatening disability that will cause unbearable hardship for the parents and a reduced quality of life for the child.
History proves again and again that people with disabilities can and do live full and productive lives.
Those with disabilities report lower rates of depression and suicide than able-bodied Australians.
Australian Nick Vujicic, 29, was born with no arms and legs as a result of a rare condition known as tetra-amelia syndrome. He overcame childhood depression to become an international motivational speaker, author, husband and father.
As a society, we are hypocritical and contradictory in our attitude to those with disabilities. Few Australians would consider killing a small child or adolescent who develops a life-threatening illness or disability, but many have no hesitation in recommending we abort an unborn baby with a disability.
Appropriately, Governments and charities raise and spend huge amounts of money on highlighting what people with disabilities can do and achieve, from the Special and Paralympics, through to creating meaningful training and employment opportunities.
The length of one’s life does not determine its value or quality.
Abortions due to “imperfections” have no logical end, leading to designer babies.
12. Abortion is warranted in the case of rape, including incest.
Rape and incest are terrible crimes against women. Such crimes evoke strong feelings due to the injustice, violence and breach of trust.
As with abortion due to a life-threatening illness of the mother, pregnancy as a result of rape or incest is extremely rare.
Less than 1% of abortions are performed because the woman has been the victim of sexual assault. In one study of 192 women who conceived as a result of sexual assualt, 70 per cent continued their pregnancies. Not one regretted the decision, while 78 per cent of the women who chose abortion regretted their choice. 13
Rape is never the fault of the child. The guilty should be punished, not the innocent.
“There is a close parallel between the violent attack on an innocent woman that happens in a rape, and the violent attack on an innocent child that happens in an abortion. Both are done in response to a subjective and misguided sense of need, and both are done at the expense of an innocent person. The woman might not hate the child in the same way the rapist hates his victim, but this is no consolation to the child.” 14
A child is still a child regardless of the circumstances of conception. This in no way minimises or trivialises the real pain, shame and regret felt by victims of rape.
“Compassion for the mother is vital, but is never served by destroying the innocent. One person must not be killed under the guise of compassion for another. An alternative must be sought that is compassionate to the mother and child.” 15
Abortion Risks & Procedures
The abortion procedures used in Australia vary depending on the gestation of the fetus, and the size and risk of complications to the mother. These are the most common abortion procedures used in Australia.
Emergency Contraception/Morning-After Pill
There are various methods used to prevent ovulation or implantation after unprotected intercourse. Some can be used up to five days after ovulation. Those which prevent implantation after fertilization are abortifacients. These include the IUD.
Physical side effects
- Nausea and vomiting
Mifepristone (RU486 or the “abortion pill’) can be used to terminate (end) a pregnancy up to nine weeks. It is taken in combination with a second drug, misprostol, which expels the embryo from the uterus.
GPs can now prescribe the two-step termination drugs so that they can be purchased at a pharmacy and self-administered by the woman at home.
The second dose of tablets, containing misoprostol, is taken 24 to 48 hours after the first dose (mifepristone) to soften the cervix and help the uterus contract and expel the embryo. The drug (called MS-2 Step Mifepristone) information stipulates that, “Even if no adverse events have occurred all patients must receive follow-up 14 to 21 days after taking mifepristone.”
Physical side effects
- Nausea or dizziness for a short time
- Bleeding from the vagina about 12 hours after treatment
- Bleeding and cramps that feel like a painful period (women who usually have painful periods are more likely to have severe cramping, but these symptoms usually lessen once the abortion is complete)
- Headache, diarrhoea and chills (women who need further treatment with prostaglandin are more likely to have these symptoms).
A recent Australian study has found that the risks associated with medical abortion are significantly higher than those associated with surgical abortion. The study shows that 5.7% of women undergoing medical abortion require admission to hospital due to complications compared to 0.4% of women following surgical abortion. Infection rates following medical abortion are 1 in 480 for medical abortion compared to 1 in 1500 for surgical abortion. Risk of haemorrhage (severe bleeding) is 1 in 200 for medical abortion compared to 1 in 3000 for surgical abortion.
This procedure is the preferred methods from 7 weeks to about 12 weeks of pregnancy. Women are usually given either a local or light general anaesthetic for the procedure.
The cervix is dilated with a series of rods of progressively larger sizes being inserted. A tube with suction is then inserted into the uterus, and the fetus and placenta are suctioned out. The lining of the uterus is then scraped to ensure all the contents have been removed.
Dilations and Evacuation (D and E)
This method is used for pregnancies greater than 12 weeks, usually 12-16 weeks
This method requires the use of vacuum aspiration, dilation and curettage and the use of surgical instruments, including forceps, to remove the fetus in pieces.
A local or general anaesthetic will be used.
The cervix is gradually dilated over a period of time with the use of plastic dilators or laminaria. (Laminaria is made of sterile, match-stick sized rods, derived from seaweed, which are inserted in the cervix and as they absorb moisture, they slowly expand to dilate the cervical canal .) The evacuation procedure is performed with a combination of suction aspiration and surgical instruments such as small forceps and the curette, a narrow, spoon-shaped instrument.
Prostaglandins 17-20 Weeks
Prostaglandins are inserted into the vagina or injected into the uterus, and induce uterine contractions and cause the cervix to dilate. The woman is awake during the procedure, but may choose to have an epidural block. The infant may die in utero due to strong contractions or from prematurity.
Women may require curettage after delivery.
Late-Term Abortion Procedures
Dilation & Extraction (D and X) - After 20 Weeks
The procedure is also known as D & X, Intact D & X, Intrauterine Cranial Decompression and Partial Birth Abortion. Two days before the procedure, laminaria is inserted vaginally to dilate the cervix. During the procedure, the fetus is rotated and forceps are used to grasp and pull the legs, shoulders and arms through the birth canal. A small incision is made at the base of the skull to allow a suction catheter inside. The catheter removes the cerebral material until the skull collapses. Then the fetus is completely removed.
To our knowledge, partial birth abortions are not performed in Australia.
Intercardiac Injection Abortion
General Risks & Complications
The complications of termination rise as the pregnancy progresses.
Infection: Up to 10% which, if left untreated, can lead to future infertility.
Retained contents: in around 1-2% of cases, not all the contents may be removed and a further surgical procedure may be required.
Trauma to the Cervix: Occurs in less than 10% of cases
Perforation of the Uterus: 1-4 women per 1000 can be affected. This may require a surgical repair, and on rare occasions, a hysterectomy (complete removal of the uterus)
Severe bleeding requiring a transfusion: Up to 2 in every 1000 women
Cervical Stenosis: Approximately 1 in 500 women will develop a small amount of scar tissue at the opening of the uterus. This stops the blood from leaving the uterus. In the majority of cases, this can be treated, but in rare cases can lead to extensive scarring (Aschermann’s Syndrome) and lead to untreatable infertility.
Psychological Disturbances: Significant psychological problems following termination are more likely if the woman has suffered psychological problems in the past, if she feels pressured or coerced into having a termination, or if having a termination is in conflict with her own morals or beliefs. Some women do experience severe psychological and emotional difficulties following abortion.
Retained products of conception: It is possible for the abortion procedure to fail to remove all the contents of the uterus. This may cause prolonged or heavy bleeding and can require a repeat curette to be undertaken. Symptoms include pain, heavy or prolonged bleeding or the passing of clots.
Perforation of the Uterus: During the operation a small hole or tear can be made in the lining of the uterus. This will usually repair itself, but not always. If not, a further operation will be required to repair it. Rarely, a hysterectomy (complete removal of the uterus) may be required.
Pregnancy Support & Counselling
Pregnancy Help Australia 24/7 phone counselling (QLD, NSW, VIC, ACT) 1300 792 798; (SA, WA, NT, TAS) 1300 655 156 www.pregnancysupport.com.au
In NSW, Sara’s Place www.sarasplace.org (Sydney Metropolitan Area), Diamond Women’s Support www.diamondpregnancy.com (North-Western Sydney and the Central Coast), Zoe’s Place www.zoesplace.org.au (Hunter Valley), Lily’s Place www.lilyrose.org.au (Coffs Harbour).
In Victoria, The Babe’s Project, www.thebabesproject.com.au
In ACT, Kaarinya House www.karinyahouse.asn.au
In South Australia, Pregnancy Help SA www.pregnancyhelpsa.com.au
In Western Australia, Pregnancy Problem House www.pregnancyproblemhouse.com.au (Perth and Kalgoorlie), Pregnancy Matters www.pregnancymatters.org.au (Rockingham and Albany), Pregnancy Assist www.pregnancyassist.com.au (Perth).
In the Northern Territory, Pregnancy Help Australia www.pregnancysupport.com.au
- Defiant Birth. Women Who Resist Medical Eugenics, Melinda Tankard Reist, Spinifex Press, 2006.
- Giving Sorrow Words. Women’s Stories of Grief After Abortion, Melinda Tankard Reist, Duffy and Snellgrove, 2005.
- Making Abortion Rare, David C Reardon. A Healing Strategy for a Divided Nation, David C Reardon, www.afterabortion.org;
- The Facts of Life. An authorative Guide to Life and Family Issues, Dr Brian Clowes, Human Life International, 2001.
- The Jericho Plan. Breaking Down the Walls that Prevent Post-Abortion Healing, David C Reardon, www.afterabortion.org;
- Fearfully and Wonderfully Made, Dr Megan Best, Matthias Media, 2013
- A Life Already Started, Dr Megan Best, Fervr Press, 2013.
Videos & Films
Follow the amazing journey from conception to birth in this remarkable video using latest imaging technology.
Other videos showing foetal development are available from the Baby Centre
Watch a nine-month pregnancy in 90 seconds. A couple expecting a child have documented their journey in a time-lapse video leading up to the birth of their daughter Amelie.
Abortion Facts References
- Angela Pratt, Amanda Briggs and Luke Buckmaster, 2005 Australian Parliamentary Library Research Brief, How Many Abortions are There each Year in Australia? http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/rb/2004-05/05rb09.htm.
- Marie Stopes International Australia, Women and Abortion http://mariestopes1-px.rtrk.com.au/library/abortion/women-and-abortion.
- Stephanie Croft, Abortion in Australia in the 21st Century, Facts, Current Trendsand the Way Ahead 2006, NSW Right to Life, p 7.
- Ibid, p 15.
- Selena Ewing, Women and Abortion: An Evidence-Based Review ,2005; a meta analysis of Australian and international research on why women have abortion, compiled for a Women’s Forum Australia parliamentary submission. See also www.afterabortion.org; citing David Reardon’s book, Victims and Victors, 2000, www.theunchoice.com/victimsandvictors;
- Marie Stopes International Australia, Women, Contraception and Unplanned Pregnancy, 2008, p 8.
- John Fleming and Nicholas Tonti-Filippini, Common Ground, Seeking an Australian Consensus on Abortion and Sex Education, St Pauls Publications, 2007, pp 110-111.
- Based on David Reardon’s research in Aborted Women, Silent No More (Elliot Institute, 2002) and Passage Through Abortion: Personal and Social Reality of Women’s Experiences by Mary Zimmerman (Praeger Publishers, 1978). A story by Tony Moore in the Sydney Morning Herald (Hidden Abortion Pressure Revealed,September 2, 2009) quoted a senior counsellor from Pregnancy Counselling Link in Brisbane as saying that 70 per cent of women were pressured into abortion by their partners. Surveys by Marie Stopes (What Women Want When Faced with Abortion, 2006) and Lifeway (Study of Women Who Have an Abortion, 2015) show the significant influence of others in the pregnancy decision. The Guttmacher Institute also has research revealing that many teenagers who have abortions are directly and indirectly influenced by the opinions of others. See also www.afterabortion.org.
- Philip G. Ney, Deeply Damaged, An Explanation for the Profound Problems Arising from Aborting Babies and Abusing Children, Pioneer Publishing Company, 1997.
- Dr Priscilla Coleman, Abortion and mental health: quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995-2009. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011, http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/199/3/180; see also, The World Expert Consortium for Abortion Research and Education, WECARE, www.wecareexperts.org;
- John Fleming and Nicholas Tonti-Filippini, Common Ground, Seeking an Australian Consensus on Abortion and Sex Education, St Pauls Publications, 2007, citing polls over the past decade by Morgan, Newspoll and others.
- South Australian Abortion Reporting Committee 2015 Annual Report, tabled in SA House of Assembly, May 18, 2017.
Answers to Common Questions References
- Randy Alcorn, Pro-Life Answers to Pro-Choice Arguments, Multnomah Books, 2000, pp 52 and 53.
- Ibid, p63
- Ibid, p 189
- Ibid, p 203
- United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.unicef.org/lac/spbarbados/Legal/global/General/declaration_child1959.pdf;
- UNICEF, http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_understanding.html;
- Ibid, http://www.unicef.org/crc/;
- Shelley Hadfield, Parents Want Right to Choose their Child’s Gender, The Advertiser, January 27, 2010
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, adoption statistics 2010-2011, www.aihw.gov.au;
- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Child Protection Australia annual reports.
- Stephanie Croft, David and Catherine Cotton, Abortion in Australia into the 21st Century, 2006, NSW Right to Life, citing Australian Bureau of Statistics figures.
- Ibid, citing Dr David van Gend, Backyard Distortions: Putting the Abortion Campaign in Perspective, Bulletin of Ovulation Method Research and Reference Centre of Australia, Volume 26 number 2, pp 12-16
- David C Reardon, Julie Makimaa and Amy Sobie, Victims and Victors: Speaking Out About the Pregnancies, Abortions and Children Resulting from Sexual Assault, 2000, Acorn Books, Springfield Illinois.
- Stephanie Croft, David and Catherine Cotton, Abortion in Australia into the 21st Century, 2006, NSW Right to Life, p15.
- Randy Alcorn, Ibid, p 234
Abortion Risks & Procedures References
- Termination of Pregnancy, (2005) Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
- Planned Parenthood of Australia, Risks of Abortion Procedures
- Better health Channel, http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/abortion_pill_ru486_(mifepristone);
- Stephanie Croft, Cartherine and David Cotton, Abortion in Australian into the 21st Century, 2006, NSW Right to Life, pp 41-43